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This is a list of the various literary sources I’ve used throughout my analysis and methodology.

Allport, Gordon. 1948. The ABC’s of Scapegoating. Chicago, IL: Central YMCA College.

__________. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

Andrews, D.A., James Bonta, & J. Stephen Wormith. 2011. ‘The risk-needs-responsivity (RNR) model: does adding the good lives model contribute to effective crime prevention?’, Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38(7): 735-755.

Antsey, Mark. 1982.’Scapegoating in groups’, Social Work with Groups, 5(3):51-63.Boduszek, Daniel, & Philip Hyland. 2011. ‘The theoretical model of criminal social identity’, International Journal of Criminology and Sociological Theory, 4(1):604-615

Avery, Donald H. 1995. Reluctant Host: Canada’s Response to Immigrant Workers, 1896-1994. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart Inc.

Baehre, Rainer. 1977. ‘Origins of the penitentiary system in upper canada’, Ontario History, 69(2):185-207.

Babcock, E. K. 1986. The history of Kingston penitentiary. Ottawa, ON: Ministry of the Attorney General of Canada.

Bales, Robert F., & Philip E. Slater. 1955. ‘Role differentiation in small decision-making groups’, pp.259-306 in T. Parsons & R. F. Bales [Eds.] Family, Socialization and Interaction Processes. New York, NY: The Free Press.

Bandura, Albert. 1973. Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bastalich, Wendy. 2009. ‘Reading foucault: genealogy and social science research methodology and ethics’, Sociological Research Online, 14(2).

Bench, Lawrence L., & Terry D. Allen. 2003. ‘Investigating the stigma of prison classification: an experimental design’, The Prison Journal, 83(4):367-382.

Berkowitz, Leonard, & James A. Green. 1962. ‘The stimulus qualities of the scapegoat’, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 64(4):293-301.

Biderman, Albert D., & Albert Reiss Jr. 1967. ‘On exploring the “dark figure” of crime’, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 374(1):1-15

Billig, Michael. 1976. Social Psychology and Intergroup Relations. London, England: Academic Press.

Blanchette, Kelley, & Laurence L. Motiuk. 2004. ‘Taking down the straw man: a reply to webster and doob’, Canadian Journal of Criminiology, 46:621-630.

Blumer, Herbert. 1958. ‘Race prejudice as a sense of group position’, The Pacific Sociological Review, 1(1):3-7.

Bobo, Lawrence. 2017. ‘Racism in trump’s america: reflections on culture, sociology, and the 2016 us presidential election’, The British Journal of Sociology, 68(S1):S85-S104.

Bobo, Lawrence, & Vincent L. Hutchings. 1996. ‘Perceptions of racial group competition: extending blumer’s theory of group position to a multiracial context’, American Sociological Review, 61(6):951-972.

Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2003. ‘Racial attitudes or racial ideology? An alternative paradigm for examining actors’ racial views’, Journal of Political Ideologies, 8(1):63-82.

Bonta, James, & Laurence L. Motiuk. 1992. ‘Inmate classification’, Journal of Criminal Justice, 20:343-353.

Bosma, Anouk Q., Maarten J. J. Kunst, Anja J. E. Dirkzwager, & Paul Nieuwbeerta. 2015. ‘Treatment readiness as a determinant of treatment participation in a prison-based rehabilitation program: an exploratory study’, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61(8):857-873.

Bosma, Anouk, Maarten Kunst, Joni Reef, Amja Dirkzwager, & Paul Niuewbeerta. 2014. ‘Prison-based rehabilitation: predictors of offender treatment participation and treatment completion’, Crime & Delinquency, 62(8):1095-1120.

Bucerius, Sandra M., & Kevin D. Haggerty. 2019. ‘Fentanyl behind bars: the implications of synthetic opiates for prisoners and correctional officers’, International Journal of Drug Policy, 71:133-138.

Burke, Kenneth. 1995. ‘The rhetoric of hitler’s battle, pp.206-220 in C. R. Burgchardt [Ed.] Readings in rhetorical criticism. State College, PA: Strata.

Burke, Peter J. 1969. ‘Scapegoating: an alternative to role differentiation’, Sociometry, 32(2):159-168.

__________. 1968. ‘Role differentiation and the legitimation of task activity’, Sociometry, 31(4):404-411. __________. 1967. ‘The development of task and social-emotional role differentiation’, Sociometry, 30(4):379-392.

Burrell, Gibson. 1988. ‘Modernism, post modernism, and organizational analysis 2: the contribution of michel foucault’, Organization Studies, 9(2):221-235.

Byrne, Mitchell K., & Kevin Howells. 2002. ‘The psychological needs of women prisoners: implications for rehabilitation and management’, Psychiatry, Psychology, and Law, 9(1):34-43.

Canada Census and Statistics Office. 1912. Fifth Census of Canada 1911. Ottawa, Ontario: C.H. Parmalee.

_________. 1924. Sixth Census of Canada 1921. Ottawa, Ontario: C.H. Parmalee.

Canada Sessional Papers. 1890. “Report of the Inspector”, no. 10.

Cantril, Hadley. 1941. The Psychology of Social Movements. New York, NY: Wiley.

Caplow, Theodore, & Jonathan Simon. 1999. ‘Understanding prison policy and population trends’, Crime and Justice, 26:63-120.

Clements, Carl B. 1996. ‘Offender classification: two decades of progress’, Criminal Justice and Behavior, 23(1):121-143.

Cohen, Stanley. 1979. ‘The punitive city: notes on the dispersion of social control’, Contemporary Crises, 3:339-363.

Coletta, Amanda. 2018. ‘Canada’s indigenous population is overrepresented in federal prisons – and its only getting worse’. Washington Post. Retrieved September 15, 2019

Correctional Service Canada. 2019. ‘Acts, regulations and policy’, Correctional Service Canada. Retrieved September 10th, 2019 (

Correctional Service Canada, 2017. ‘Research at csc’. Correctional Service Canada. Retrieved September 6 (

___________. 2015 a. ‘Forum on corrections research’. Correctional Service Canada. Retrieved September 20, 2018 (

___________. 2015b. ‘Resource manual, chapter 3: the role, authority and responsibilities of cacs’. Correctional Service Canada. Retrieved September 15, 2018 (

___________. 2013. Federal Community Corrections Strategy: Framework for Action. Ottawa, ON: Correctional Service Canada.

___________. 2009. 2007-2008 Estimates, Part III – Report on Plans and Priorities. Ottawa, ON: Correctional Service Canada.

Cullen, Francis T. 2007. ‘Make rehabilitation corrections’ guiding paradigm’, Criminology & Public Policy, 6(4):717-727.

Denis, Jeffrey S. 2015. ‘Contact theory in a small-town settler-colonial context: the reproduction of laissez-fair racism in indigenous-white canadian relations’, American Sociological Review, 80(1):218-242.

Dentler, Robert A., & Kai T. Erikson. 1959. ‘The functions of deviance in groups’, Social Problems, 7(2):98-107.

Dollard, John, Leonard Doob, Neal E. Miller, O. H. Mowrer, & R. F. Sears. 1939. Frustration and Aggression. Clinton, MA: Yale University Press.

Dreyfus, Hubert L., & Paul Rabinow. 1983. Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Duckitt, John. 1992. ‘Patterns of prejudice: group interests and intergroup attitudes’, South African Journal of Psychology, 22(3):147-156.

Durkheim, Emile. 1998. Readings from Emile Durkheim, rev. ed. K. Thompson [Ed.]. New York, NY: Routledge.

Fanon, Frantz. 1952. Black skin, white masks. London, UK: Pluto Press.

Fernandez, Kenneth E., & Max Neiman. 1998. ‘California’s inmate classification system: predicting inmate misconduct’, The Prison Journal, 78(4):406-422.

Fiske, Susan T., Amy J. C. Cuddy, Peter Glick, & Jun Xu. 2002. ‘A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6):878-902. Feshbach, Seymour. 1964. ‘The function of aggression and the regulation of aggressive drive’, 71(4):257-272.

Foucault, Michel. 1991a. ‘Politics and the study of discourse’, pp.53-72 in The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, & Peter Miller [Eds.]. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

__________. 1991b. ‘Governmentality’, pp. 87-104 in The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, & Peter Miller [Eds.]. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

__________. 1980. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews & Other Writings 1972-1977. Colin Gordon [Ed.], Colin Gordon, Leo Marshall, John Mepham, & Kate Soper [Trans.]. Toronto, ON: Random House.

__________. 1977. Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Alan Sheridan [Trans.]. Toronto, ON: Random House. __________. 1970. The Order of Things: An Archeaology of the Human Sciences. New York, NY: Routledge.

Gallagher, James & Peter J. Burke. 1974. ‘Scapegoating and leader behavior’, Social Forces, 52(4):481-488.

Garland, David. 2001a. The Culture of Control. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

__________. 2001b. ‘Introduction: the meaning of mass imprisonment’, Punishment & Society, 3(1):5-7.

Gibbons, Don C. 1958. ‘Probation: theory and reality’, Canadian Journal of Corrections, 1:10-18.

Girard, Rene. 1986. The Scapegoat. Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press.

Glick, Peter. 2005. ‘Choice of scapegoats’, pp. 244-261 in J. F. Dovidio, P. Glick, & L. A. Rudman [Eds.] On the Nature of Prejudice: Fifty Years After Allport. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Goffman, Erving. 1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of a Spoiled Identity. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Goodman, Philip. 2014. ‘Race in california’s prison fire camps for men: prison politics, space, and the racialization of everyday life’, American Journal of Sociology, 120(2):352-394.

__________. 2008. ‘’It’s just black, white, or hispanic’: an observational study of racializing moves in california’s segregated prison reception centers’, Law & Society Review, 421(4):735-770.

Gordon, Colin. 1991. ‘Governmental rationality: an introduction’, pp.1-51 in The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, & Peter Miller [Eds.]. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. Goutor, David. 2007. Guarding the Gates: The Canadian Labour Movement and Immigration, 1872-1934. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Government of Canada. 2019a. ‘Responding to canada’s opioid crisis’. Retrieved September 11, 2019 (

____________. 2019b. ‘Defining vulnerable populations’. Retrieved September 10, 2019 (

Gau, Jacinta M., & Travis C. Pratt. 2008. ‘Broken windows or window dressing? Citizens’ (in)ability to tell the difference between disorder and crime’, Criminology & Public Policy, 7(2): 163-194.

Granovetter, Mark S. 1983. ‘The strength of weak ties: a network theory revisited’, Sociological Theory, 1:201-233.

___________. 1973. ‘The strength of weak ties’, American Journal of Sociology, 78(6):1360-1380.

Greenberg, Jeff, & Spee Koslof. 2008. ‘Terror management theory: implications for understanding prejudice, stereotyping, intergroup conflict, and political attitudes’, Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(5):1881-1894.

Graham, Linda J. 2005. ‘Discourse analysis and the critical use of foucault’, Paper Presented at Australian Association for Research in Education, November.

Gramsci, Antonio. 2014. Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Quinton Hoare & Geoffrey Nowell Smith [Eds and trans.]. New York, NY: International Publishers.

Griffiths, Curt T., Yvon Dandurand, & Danielle Murdoch. 2007. The Social Reintegration of Offenders and Crime Prevention. Ottawa, ON: Public Safety Canada.

Gunnison, Elaine, & Jacqueline B. Helfgott. 2011. ‘Factors that hinder offender re-entry success’, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55(2):287-304.

Hacking, Ian. 1991. ‘How should we do the history of statistics?’, pp,181-196 in The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, & Peter Miller [Eds.]. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Hall, Stuart, Chas Critcher, Tony Jefferson, John Clarke, & Brian Roberts. 2013. Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order, 2nd Ed. New York, NY: Palgrave     Macmillan.

Hall, Stuart. 1997. ‘The work of representation’, pp.13-72 in S. Hall [Ed.]    Representation: Cultural Presentations and Signifying Practices. London, UK: Sage Publications.

Hannah-Moffat. 2008. ‘Criminogenic needs and the transformative risk subject: hybridizations of risk/need in penalty’, Punishment & Society, 7(1):29-51

Harris, Michael. 2016. ‘How bad is canada’s recidivism problem? Nobody knows’. iPolitics, December 22. Retrieved on September 19 (

Hennessy, Peter H. 1999. Canada’s Big House: The Dark History of the Kingston Penitentiary. Toronto, ON: Dundurn Press.

Howarth, Caroline. 2006a. ‘Race as stigma: positioning the stigmatized as agents, not objects’, Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 16:442-451.

__________. 2006b. ‘A social representation is not a quiet thing: exploring the critical potential of social representations theory’, British Journal of Social Psychology, 45:65-86

Howarth, Caroline. 2006a. ‘Race as stigma: positioning the stigmatized as agents, not objects’, Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 16:442-451.

__________. 2006b. ‘A social representation is not a quiet thing: exploring the critical potential of social representations theory’, British Journal of Social Psychology, 45:65-86

Iftene, Adelina. 2016. ‘Unlocking the doors to canadian older inmate mental health data’, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 47:36-44.

Innes, Martin. 2004. ‘Signal crimes and signal disorders: notes on deviance as communicative action’, The British Journal of Sociology, 55 (3): 335-355.

John Howard Society of Ontario. 2016. Reintegration in Ontario: Practices, Priorities, and Effective Models. Toronto, ON: John Howard Society of Ontario.

Johnson, Sara, Shanna Farrell MacDonald, Madelon Cheverie, Christina Myrick, & Benefikt Fischer. 2012. ‘Prevalence and trends of non-medical opioid and other drug use histories among federal correctional inmates in methadone maintenance treatment in canada’, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 124(1-2): 172-176.

Katz, Irwin. 1979. ‘Some thoughts about the stigma notion’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 5(4):447-460.

Khan, Lynn Sandra. 1980. ‘The dynamics of scapegoating: the expulsion of evil’, Psychotherapy: Research and Practice, 17(1):79-84.

Kouyoumdjian, Fiona, Andree Schuler, Flora I. Matheson, & Stephen W. Hwang. 2016. ‘Health status of prisoners in canada: narrative review’, Canadian Family Physician, 262(3):215-222.

King, Nicholas B., Veronique Fraser, Constantina Boikos, & Sam Harper. 2014. ‘Determinants of increased opioid-related mortality in the united states and canada, 1990-2013: a systematic review’, American Journal of Public Health, 104(8):e32-e42.

Kubrin, Charles E., & Ronald Weitzer. 2003. ‘New directions in social disroganization theory’, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40(4):374-402.

Kubrin, Charis E., & Ronald Weitzer. 2003. ‘New directions in social disorganization theory’, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40(4):374-402.Lahm, Karen F. ‘Educational participation and inmate misconduct’, Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 48(1): 37-52.

LaPrairie, Carol. ‘The role of sentencing in the over-representation of aboriginal people in correctional institutions’, Canadian Journal of Criminology, 32:429-440.

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Laub, John H., Zachary R. Rowan, & Robert J. Sampson. 2018. ‘The age-graded theory of informal social control’, pp.295-322 in The Oxford Handbook of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, David P. Farrington, Lila Kazemian, & Alex R. Piquero [Eds]. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

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Lindzey, Gardner. 1950. ‘An experimental examination of the scapegoat theory of prejudice’, The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 45(2):296-309.

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McDoom, Omar Shahabudin. 2013. ‘Antisocial capital: a profile of Rwandan genocide perpetrators’ social networks’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 58(5):865-893.

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Mosher, Clayton James. 1998. Discrimination and Denial: Systematic Racism in Ontario’s Legal and Criminal Justice Systems, 1892-1961. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

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Neocleous, Mark. 2011. ‘The police of civilization: the war on terror as civilizing offensive’, International Political Sociology, 5:144-159.

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